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General Data Protection Regulation

Here you can find the official content of the Regulation (EU) 2016/679 (General Data Protection Regulation) in the current version. All Articles of the GDPR are linked with suitable recitals.

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Meta Hit with Record €1.2B GDPR Fine

In a significant blow to U.S. tech giant Meta, the Irish Data Protection Commission (DPC) has imposed a historic fine of €1.2 billion for the company’s failure to comply with the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).

Meta, the parent company of popular platforms like Facebook, Instagram, and WhatsApp, violated privacy rules by transferring personal data of European users to the United States without adequate data protection mechanisms.

This record-breaking fine, coinciding with the fifth anniversary of GDPR enforcement, marks a significant milestone in data protection regulation.

Meta’s Violation of GDPR

The Irish Data Protection Commission concluded its inquiry into Meta Platforms, focusing on the transfer of personal data from the EU/EEA to the U.S. for Facebook services, and ordered the data transfers should be suspended.

Despite Meta Ireland’s use of updated Standard Contractual Clauses (SCCs) and additional supplementary measures, the arrangements did not sufficiently address the risks to data subjects’ fundamental rights and freedoms, as highlighted by a landmark judgment from the European Court of Justice.

The Impact of the European Court of Justice Ruling

The European Court of Justice invalidated the EU-U.S. data flows agreement known as the Privacy Shield in 2020 due to concerns over U.S. intelligence surveillance practices.  The ruling also imposed stricter requirements for using SCCs, which companies commonly utilize to transfer personal data to the U.S.

Meta, along with other international companies, continued relying on SCCs as negotiations for a new data flows arrangement between the EU and U.S. were ongoing, and alternative legal mechanisms were lacking.

Consequences and Implementation Deadlines

As a result of the fine, Meta has been ordered to suspend any future transfer of personal data to the U.S. within a five-month period from the date of notification of the DPC’s decision.

In addition to the fine, Meta Ireland must bring its processing operations into compliance with Chapter V of the GDPR. This involves ceasing unlawful processing and storage of personal data of EU/EEA users in the U.S. within six months from the notification date.

Meta’s Response and Legal Challenges

Meta issued a statement expressing disagreement with the decision, arguing that the fine sets a dangerous precedent, and vowed to appeal the decision while seeking a stay with the courts to pause implementation deadlines.

Meta emphasized that there would be no immediate disruption to Facebook services due to the inclusion of implementation periods until later in the year.

Should the fine be even bigger?

Max Schrems, the privacy activist who originally filed the complaint that supported the case against Meta, expressed satisfaction with the decision, stating, “We are happy to see this decision after ten years of litigation.

Schrems acknowledged that the fine imposed on Meta could have been even higher, considering that the maximum penalty under GDPR exceeds €4 billion. He highlighted Meta’s deliberate violation of the law for a decade to prioritize profit.

Schrems emphasized that unless there are significant improvements in U.S. surveillance laws, Meta will be compelled to undergo a fundamental restructuring of its systems to ensure compliance with data protection regulations.

The Future of Data Transfers

The EU and U.S. are currently finalizing a new data flow agreement that is expected to be established between July and October. Meta has until October 12 to discontinue its reliance on SCCs for data transfers.

Additionally, the company must either delete or repatriate the personal data of European Facebook users transferred and stored in the U.S. since 2020 by November 12, pending the negotiation of a new EU-U.S. data agreement.


Meta’s €1.2 billion GDPR fine represents a significant development in data protection regulation, highlighting the importance of safeguarding individuals’ privacy in cross-border data transfers.

In response to the record fine imposed on Meta, Max Schrems expressed skepticism about the tech giant’s chances of overturning the decision.

He stated, “Meta will appeal this decision, but there is no real chance to have this decision materially overturned. Past violations cannot be overcome by a new EU-US deal. Meta can at best delay the payment of the fine for a bit.”

The decision by the Irish Data Protection Commission reflects the increased scrutiny on tech giants and emphasizes the need for companies to comply with stringent data protection standards.

As the EU and U.S. work towards a new data flow agreement, the outcome will have far-reaching implications for data transfers and privacy rights in the digital age.

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